Time Line of the Life of the Servant of God Queen Isabel

1405, March 6.—Juan II of Castile, father of our Servant of God, is born in Toro (Zamora), Spain.

1421.—Marriage of King Juan II with Maria of Aragon.

1425, January 5.—Enrique, their third child and first son, is born in Valladolid.  He will inherit the Crown as Enrique IV “the impotent”.

1440, September 15.—Prince Enrique marries in Valladolid, Blanca of Navarre.

1447, July 22.—Maria of Aragon having died, King Juan II remarries Isabel of Portugal, who will be the mother of our Queen.

1447, August 2.—Isabel of Portugal takes possession of the village of Madrigal.

1451, April 22.—The Princess Isabel is born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres.  She will become Queen Isabel I of Castile.

1453, May 11.—The marriage of Enrique and Blanca is declared null (without descendants, after 12 years and 8 months of marriage).

1453, November, 13.—Prince Alfonso, brother of Isabel, is born in Tordesillas (Valladolid).

1453, December, 20.—Marriage capitulations of Enrique IV with Juana of Portugal.

1454-1461.—Isabel, from the age of three till the age of ten, lives in Arevalo with her brother, mother and grandmother.

1454, July 8.— Juan II dictates his will through which in defect of legitimate succession of Enrique and Alfonso, Isabel will inherit the throne. 

1454, July 21.—Juan II dies in Valladolid.

1455, February 25.—Remarriage of Enrique IV with Juana of Portugal celebrated by proxy in Lisbon.

1461.—Isabel and Alfonso are taken to the Court of Enrique IV in Segovia.

1462, February 28.—Juana a.k.a. “la Beltraneja (daughter of Beltran)” or “the daughter of the Queen” is born to Juana of Portugal.

1462, May 9.—Juana “la Beltraneja” is sworn as Princess Heir in the Courts of Madrid.

1464, October 25.—Designation of Prince Alfonso as Heir to the Kingdom of Castile.

1464, November 30.—Naming of Alfonso as Heir to the Crown.  Reunion of the King and nobles in a meeting between Cabezon and Cigales.

1464, December 4.—Royal document of Enrique IV declaring Prince Alfonso heir and successor to the throne of Castile.

1465, June 5.—Enrique IV breaks the agreement made in the meeting between Cabezon and Cigales.           

1465-1467.—Residence of the Princess Isabel with her own household in Segovia.

1465, June 6.—“The Farce of Avila”.  Symbolic dethroning of Enrique IV causing division of the Kingdom into two obediences with the proclamation of Prince Alfonso as King of Castile.

1465, July 14.—Letter of Enrique IV to Pope Paul II giving account of the “Farce of Avila” and asking that the guilty party be punished.

1465, November 12.—Agreement between Alfonso V, King of Portugal, and his sister the Queen of Castile Juana, concerning his possible marriage with the Princess Isabel of Castile.

1466, January 29.—The Pope sends to Castile his Apostolic Nuncio and Legate “a látere” Lianoro de Lianoris.

1467, April 18.—Mission of the new Apostolic Nuncio and Legate “a látere” in the person of the Bishop of Leon, Antonio Jacobo de Veneris.

1467, May 11.—The Pope gives new faculties to his Legate with full powers to procure peace.

1467, August 20.—Battle of Olmedo between those of the King and the supporters of Alfonso.

1468, July 4.—Letter of the Princess Isabel to the Council of Murcia on the vigil of the death of her brother Alfonso.

1468, July 5.—Prince Alfonso dies in Cardeñosa with Isabel at his side.

1468, July 5, and days following.—Alfonso having just died his supporters want to proclaim Isabel, queen; she opposes it while Enrique IV is alive: Princess heir yes, Queen no.

1468, July 8.—New letter of Isabel to the Council of Murcia asking for the naming of Procurators.

1468, July 20.—Naming of the steward and chief accountant for the household created by the Princess Isabel in the person of Gonzalo Chacon.

1468, July-August.—Peace negotiations in Madrid and Avila between representatives of the King and the partisans now of Isabel.

1468, July.—Conciliatory letter and thank you from Enrique IV to the Princess Isabel.

1468, August 17-22.—Reunion in Castronuño towards an informal agreement between the two parties in preparation for formal agreement.

1468, August.—The Queen Juana, pregnant but not by the King, flees the Castle of Alaejos.

1468, September 18.—Peace accord formalized with respect for the King and the declaration of heiress in favor of Isabel: Madrid-Avila.

1468, September 19.—Meeting and solemn reconciliation in Guisando, with a reading of the Pact, etc., in the presence of the Papal Legate Antonio Jacobo de Veneris.

1468, September 24.—The pact continues to develop in various political areas.

1468, September 23 and 26.— Enrique IV and Isabel communicate jointly to the Kingdom what was agreed upon in Guisando.

1468, September 23.—Isabel ratifies the letter the King wrote to the Nobles not present in Guisando.

1468, September, until 1469, May.—Residence of the Princess in the Village of Ocaña with her half-brother the King.  There plans are revealed by one side for her marriage with Alfonso V of Portugal (September 19, 1468) which she rejects, and by the other side including the Papal Nuncio, for her marriage with Ferdinand of Aragon (December, 1468).

1468, October.—Breaking of the “pact” in the Reunion of Villarejo; an attempt is made to marry Isabel with Alfonso V of Portugal.

1468, November 30.— Apóstol is born in Buitrago, son of Juana the Queen consort of Castile (but not of the King).

1468, December.—Enrique IV writes to the Pope asking that he annul everything agreed upon in the Pact of Guisando, which the Pope refuses to do.

1469, January 7.—Marriage Capitulations between the Princess Isabel of Castile with Prince Ferdinand of Aragon.

1469, April 30.—Alfonso V of Portugal makes an alliance with Enrique IV of Castile for expelling Ferdinand and Isabel from the Kingdom if they get married.

1469, May, middle of.—Isabel leaves Ocaña and heads for Arevalo and Madrigal after the King begins his trip to Andalusia.

1469, July.—The Cardinal of Alby proposes in Madrigal for Isabel to marry the Duke of Berri and Guyana and receives an evasive but kindly worded reply.

1469, August.—Princess Isabel arrives in Valladolid.

1469, September, 8.—Letter from Isabel to Enrique IV showing respect for his authority; through this letter we know that he tried to seize her.  It explains the convenience of marrying Ferdinand.

1469, September, 20.—Letter from Isabel to the City of Toledo.

1469, October, 9.—Beckoning of Ferdinand to Valladolid, who on this day is in Dueñas, 30 kilometers away from Valladolid.

1469, October 12.—Letter from Isabel to Enrique IV communicating the above and promising obedience.

1469, October, 18.—Ferdinand travels from Dueñas to Valladolid.

1469, October, 19.—Marriage of Isabel with Ferdinand of Aragon, having been granted a papal dispensation privately as an internal extra-sacramental privilege by the Papal Legate Antonio de Veneris, and then immediately communicating it to the King, promising love and obedience. 

1469, December, 11.—Isabel takes possession of the city of Medina del Campo.

1470, February.—Prince Ferdinand and Princess Isabel offer a proposal as a basis for peace and negotiation with King Enrique IV.

1470, July, 8.—Letter of confraternity of the Franciscan Order to Princess Isabel.

1470, October, 1.—The first born daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel is born in Dueñas, and named Isabel.

1470, October.—Letter of Ferdinand and Isabel to the King offering him their respect, love and obedience and proposing a full consultation to resolve the hereditary conflict. 

1470, October, 25.—Disinheritance of Isabel in Val de Lozoya and official act in favor of Juana “the daughter of the Queen”, and communication of this to the Kingdom.

1470, October, 28.—Letter of Pope Paul II to Enrique IV refusing to grant what was asked, namely the disinheritance of Isabel that he attempted in Val de Lozoya.

1470, November, 3.—Royal edict to the City of Toledo explaining the happenings in Val de Lozoya.

1471, March, 1.—Circular letter of Isabel to the Kingdom refuting all the accusations of her half-brother against her. 

1471, July, 20.—Pope Paul II dies, and Cardinal Della Rovere is elected as Sixtus IV on the 9th of August.

1471, December, 1.—Bull of Pope Sixtus IV giving a public dispensation to the impediment of consanguinity to Isabel and Fernando.

1471, December, 20.—Official Brief from Pope Sixtus IV to the Princess, or “Confession”.

1472, May till 1473, September.—Pontifical Legation of Rodrigo Borja in Spain, who worked for peace and in favor of Isabel.

1472, July.—Embassy from Burgundy to Castile to visit Isabel and Ferdinand.

1473, May, 7.—Consistory in which Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza is created Cardinal.

1473, August, 31.—Letter from Isabel to the Village of Moya thanking him for his support and obedience.

1473, December, 28.—Reconciliation between Enrique IV and Isabel through the initiative of Andres de Cabrera and Beatriz de Bobadilla in the Alcazar of Segovia.  Isabel remains there awaiting news.

1474, October, 4.—Death of Juan Pacheco the Marques of Villena, Grand Master of the Order of St. James.  He had been a bitter enemy against the succession of Isabel to the throne, but days before he died, he sent a delegation to her in which it seems he declared for the rights of Isabel.

1474, December, 11.—King Enrique IV dies in Madrid.

1474, December, 13.—Proclamation of the Princess Isabel as Queen of Castile in Segovia and consecration of the entire Kingdom to God.

1474, December, 27.—Letter from Alfonso V of Portugal to the Marques of Cadiz about his projected invasion of Castile.

1475, January, 1.—Ferdinand is recognized as King of Castile.

1475, January, 15.—Isabel and Ferdiand sign a Joint Agreement of Concordance on their mode of governing.  Ferdinand is declared co-ruler in Castile.  Later (28 April 1475) Isabel widely extends his powers, and Ferdinand on his part (13 April 1481) makes her co-regent of Aragon.

1475, February.—Alfonso V threatens war.  The Archbishop of Toledo abandons the Queen angrily.

1475, February-April.—Isabel takes intense diplomatic actions to avoid war with Portugal.

1475, April.—General pardon is given by the Monarchs to the Grandees of the Kingdom that had joined or were about to join the Portuguese invaders.

1475, May, 30.—Manifest of Plasencia declaring as Monarchs of Castile Alfonso V of Portugal and Juana “la Beltraneja” (daughter of Beltran).

1475, November, 25.—Letter from Isabel to her father-in-law Juan II of Aragon asking him to send ambassadors to negotiate peace with France.  (Signed on 9 October, 1478)

1476, January, 28.—The Castle of Burgos surrenders to the Queen.

1476, March, 1.—Decisive victory over the Portuguese army in the battle of Toro (Zamora).  In commemoration of this victory the Monarchs built the Monastery of St. John of Kings, the first in a series of monasteries which present us the “Isabeline style” in architecture.

1476, April, 2.—The new papal legate Nicolas Franco arrives in Valladolid.

1476, May, 8.—Isabel is confirmed and sworn as heir of Castile and Leon by the Court of Madrigal.

1476-1478.—One by one, pardon is given out to the traitors (Count of Plasencia, Marques of Villena, Archbishop of Toledo) reincorporating them in their positions without retaliation or punishment, keeping peace with Portugal.

1476, June, 5.—The Queen asks Pope Sixtus IV for authorization to enter the cloister of St. Benito el Real de Valladolid and also the Cartuja de Miraflores (Burgos).

1477, October-1478 June.—A commission of lawyers of the Council of Castile studies and affirms the rights of the Crown over the Canary Islands.  The occupation is begun in 1478 and concluded in 1492 and 1496, following the Papal Bull “Pastoris aeterni” of 1472 which gives it the character of an “evangelizing conquest” with a system of “peace accords” to avoid the taking of slaves.  Innocent VIII approves the continued campaign in 1486 and concedes the right of royal patrimony to Castile for the Canary Islands as well as for Granada, whose re-conquest had then already begun.

1477, December, 25.—The Queen makes the first provision in favor of the printing press, just invented, giving it preference in her entire kingdom.  It was progressively and swiftly established in the larger cities and also in many that were not so large.  It is not surprising that the first book printed in Spain was a compilation of songs in honor of Our Lady.

1478, June, 28.— Juan the Prince Heir is born in Seville.

1478, July-August.—General Reunion of the Clergy of Castile in Seville, basis for the ecclesiastical reform and for reform of religious orders of the Kingdom continued during her entire reign.

1478, October, 9.—Peace is signed with France.

1478, November.—Papal Bull of Sixtus IV about the foundation of the Inquisition in Castile.  The Queen holds on to it for almost two years while an intense catechetical campaign is begun.

1479, February, 24.—The battle near the Albuera River ends all the military incursions of Portugal into Castile.

1479, March, 20.—Peace negotiations in Valencia de Alcantara between the Queen and her aunt the Princess Beatriz of Braganza (for Portugal).

1479, June.—Letter of pardon from the Monarchs to all Castilians who were in the service of the King of Portugal.

1479, September, 4.—Peace Treaty signed by both parties in Alcazobas.

1479, November, 6.—Princess Juana is born in Toledo.

1480, beginning months.—Court of Toledo in which the reorganization of the entire Kingdom is planned.  In these meetings the Queen apportioned a sum to give to Fr. Hernando de Talavera for the discharges of her conscience and to pay for the debts of her Administration.  From here is born the Book of the Discharges of the Conscience of Queen Isabel, which becomes the Delegation of the Discharges with a lot of personnel attached.  It functioned until 1532.

1480, May, 4.—Royal Decree concerning professors and property of the University of Salamanca, prohibiting employment of those without a degree, and allowing the poor to study for free, etc.  It is perhaps the first in a series of directives that elevated the level of the university to unknown heights.  Later the university charter was created.

1480, November, 15.—Solemn Profession of Vows of Juana la Beltraneja “the daughter of the queen” with the Sisters of St. Clare of Coimbra, Portugal “of her own free will”.

1481, March, 8.—Papal Bull of Sixtus IV ratifying the peace accord between Castile and Portugal.

1481, December, 26-1492, January, 2.—Re-conquest and evangelization of Granada.  The Re-conquest of Granada, agreed upon in the marriage capitulations and decreed at the Court of Toledo of 1480, formally began when the Moors attacked and took Zahara on 26 December, 1481.  The preparatory stage lasted from 1481 to 1484.  The second stage had four phases: 1st, 1484-1485, the west of the kingdom falls with Ronda at its center; 2nd, 1485-1487, the mid-west section falls with the taking of Malaga, Loxa, Illora, Velez, Gibralfaro, Velez Malaga; 3rd, 1488-1489, Baza is conquered (4 December, 1489), in which the Queen appears almost as a vision, ending with the fall of Guadix, Almeria, Alpujarras; in this phase the Queen pawned her jewels; 4th phase, 1490-1492, the base of Santa Fe is established for the siege of Granada (here the tent of the Queen catches fire  on 14 July, 1491).  The capital surrenders on 2 January, 1492.  The same day the Queen communicates the news to the Monastery of Guadalupe and the King communicates it to the Pope.


Special dates concerning Granada:  On the 13 November, 1479, the Monarchs obtain a papal bull (“Sacri apostolatus ministerio”) from Sixtus IV declaring a crusade; another bestowing more powers on 10 August, 1482, (“Ortodoxae fideli”).—Innocent VIII on 8 February 1486 encourages the Queen to continue with the conquest of Granada and on 13 December 1486 concedes the patrimony and the right of presentation (“Ortodoxae fidei”).—During the entire second phase the “Hospital of the Queen” functioned and, lacking money at hand, she invented paper money (today’s bank note).

On 13 April, 1493, Pope Alexander VI erects four Diocese.  On 29 September, 1493 the University of Paris congratulates the Queen for the re-conquest of Granada and for the expulsion of the Jews.  On 20 April, 1479, a royal decree is issued which permits the Mudejar Muslims expelled from Portugal to establish themselves in Castile.—31 October, 1499, Royal Provision so that the many Muslims (men and women) becoming Christians would not be disinherited by their parents and to protect them with all due justice.


1482, June, 3.—Agreement between the Monarchs and Domenico Centurione concerning the tenth percent, the crusade and their request, etc.

1482, June, 29.—Princess Maria is born in Cordoba.

1483, February, 25.—Sixus IV writes to the Queen encouraging her to proceed with the Inquisition.  Relations with Innocent VIII, were peaceful in the beginning, but later became tense because of the credit he gave to some calumnies about Isabel and Ferdinand; this occasioned various letters from the Monarchs telling him clearly of their responsibilities (6 October, 1490; 26 January, 1491; 27 March, 1491).

1484.—Under the auspices of the Queen, Holy Cross College is founded in Valladolid, which is followed by a long list of other Colleges or Universities: Sigüenza, St. Gregory of Valladolid, Seville, Valencia, Zaragoza, Cuenca, Oviedo, Salamanca with four Colleges, Toledo, Santiago de Compostela, St. Thomas of Avila, etc.  From these doctors would graduate in all sciences.

1485, December, 15.—Princess Catherine is born in Alcala (later, Catherine of Aragón, wife of King Henry VIII or England).


1486-1504.—Key dates concerning the discovery of the Americas. 

1486, January, 20.—First audience of Christopher Columbus with the Monarchs in Alcala de Henares.  In this he speaks of the Great Khan of India who awaits Christian missionaries: a key idea in the mind and heart of the Queen.

1486-1487, April.—Conference of lawyers, cosmographers, and mariners with Columbus in Salamanca; “the majority of them held the project as impossible”.

1487-1492.—Regardless, the Queen received Columbus at the Court, delaying any final decision until after the war of Granada, and meanwhile helping him financially.  At the beginning of 1488 Columbus told the King of Portugal of his project, but without gaining support, so he returned to Castile.  Columbus explained it to the Duke of Medinaceli, who liked it, but the Queen replied that it was an enterprise only for Monarchs to undertake and she continued supporting Columbus.  The Duke is repaid for his expenditure on Columbus’ project.

1489, May, 12.—Columbus is received at the Court with the position of a Royal Councilor.

1491, middle of.—Columbus moves to the monastery at La Rábida saying that he comes from the Court.  Fr. Juan Perez writes to the Queen and she asks him to meet her in Real de la Vega de Granada.  From this interview Fr. Perez returns with an order for Columbus to come to Real.  There he was able to witness the surrender of the City on 2 January, 1492.

1492, January.—A few days after the taking of Granada the Queen calls a great Assembly to study the project; “Opinions varied greatly”, the decision was negative and Columbus was dismissed.  In this Assembly Columbus asked for exorbitant privileges.  But the Queen had him called back and ordered her Secretary Coloma to prepare the Capitulations for the Discovery Voyage.

1492, April, 17.—The Capitulations of Santa Fe are signed with Christopher Columbus.

1492, April.—Royal provision ordering the town of Palos de Moguer to give to Columbus two well equipped ships, as ordered by the Council.

1492, August, 3.—The three ships, the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa María, set sail from Puerto de Palos.

1492, October, 12.—Discovery of the New World. 

1493, March, 15.—Columbus arrives at the port of his departure, returning from his first exploratory voyage.

1493, March, 22.—Letter from Columbus to Luis de Santangel written aboard the Niña.

1493, March, 30.—Letter from the Monarchs to Columbus (which presupposes a letter from him to them, but it has disappeared) congratulating him on his successful return and ordering him to appear soon before the Royal Court.

1493, April, 13.—Columbus is received by the Monarchs in Barcelona, where they were residing at the time.

1493, May, 3.—Papal Bull “Inter cetera” that mandates evangelization and assigns the discovered lands and those still to be discovered to Castile and Leon.

1493, May, 29.—Instructions to Columbus about evangelization, concerning the second expedition, in which an Apostolic Delegate and some missionaries will also sail.  In this month the seven Indians brought back by Columbus from his first trip are baptized: the first-fruits of America.

1493, June, 25.—Papal Bull from Alexander VI to Fr. Boyl; the Monarchs send him an authenticated copy.

1493, September, 5.—Letter from the Queen to Columbus sending him a copy of his book “Onboard Diary”, asking him for a letter of navigation, and “that he not postpone his departure for the Indies”.

1493, September, 25.—The second expedition of Columbus sets sail from the Bay of Cadiz with the Apostolic Delegate and four missionaries.

1494, January, 6.—On the Feast of the Epiphany the first Solemn Mass in the Americas was celebrated.

1494, January, 30.—From the Island Isabella, Columbus writes to the Queen sending her 500 slaves, who arrive in Cadiz at the beginning of April.

1494, April, 16.—The Queen immediately orders the sale of slaves to stop and convokes a Commission of theologians and canon lawyers to study “if in good conscience they can be sold”.

1500, June, 20.—The Queen, without waiting for the Commission’s decision, orders that all the said Indian slaves be returned and repatriated along with their possessions and paying for all their expenses.  Columbus is strictly warned in the instructions for his next voyage:  “Do not bring back slaves” (9 May, 1502). 

1500 – 1504.—From the very beginning, insistence on the good treatment of the Indians is repeated again and again in royal documents, including in Isabel’s last will and testament; from this collection results an outline of the Laws of the Indies.


 

1486, February, 8.—Innocent VIII encourages the Queen to continue her efforts for the conquest of Granada.

1490, April, 18.—Marriage of the Princess Isabel with Prince Alfonso of Portugal.

1491, July, 13.—Said Prince Alfonso dies in Evora.  Princess Isabel is widowed.

1492, March, 31.—Decree of the expulsion of the Jews, otherwise known as the suspension of the permission to reside in the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon.  This was preceded by the separation of Jews and Christians decreed by the Court of Toledo (1480) based on laws already existing at the time; the establishment of the Inquisition (1478-1480) and the expulsion from Andalusia (1483).

1492, December, 7.—Assassination attempt on King Ferdinand in Barcelona.

1492, December, 30.—Letter from Isabel to Fr. Hernando de Talavera concerning the assassination attempt on Ferdinand.

1493, January, 18 and 19.—Treatise of Barcelona concerning the returning of Rosellon and Cerdaña to Aragon by Charles VIII of France (on mortgage since 1463) and agreeing to peace for 101 years.

1493, March, 19.—Papal Bull “Iniunctum Nobia” annexing Montserrat to the Monastery of St. Benito el Real de Valladolid.

1493, March, 27.—Alexander VI gives to the Monarchs ample faculties for the reforming of convents of nuns in Castile, Leon and Aragon.

1493, April, 23.—Letter from the Monarchs to the Prior of St. Benito el Real of Valladolid with a copy of the Bull about sending a new community of monks to Montserrat.

1493, July, 27.—Papal Bull for general reform given to the Monarchs by Alexander VI.

1493, October.—Letter from Fr. Hernando de Talavera to the Queen correcting her on what he believed to be excessive in the feasts celebrated in Perpignan at the devolution of Rosellón and Cerdaña to Aragon.

1493, December, 4—Response of the Queen to the above letter.

1493, December, 11.—Letter from the Queen to the Councilmen of Barcelona.

1493, December, 20.—Letter from the Queen to the Bishop of Barcelona asking him to support the reform and to prohibit certain clergy from entering the convents of nuns.

1494, July, 18.—Brief of Alexander VI at the petition of the Monarchs revoking the so called “Letters of concord” between the “conventual” Franciscans and those of the “observance”.

1494, December, 17.—Bull from Alexander VI giving the Monarchs an extension on the indulgence  for those who continue to fight against the Moors in Africa.

1495, January, 20.—Marriage Capitulations between Phillip of Austria with Juana of Castile and of Prince Juan with Margaret of Hapsburg.

1495, February, 13.—Promulgation of the Bull conceding to the Monarchs the right to begin the conquest of Africa and giving them and their heirs possession of its kingdoms and estates.

1495, March, 31.—The Holy League is formed by the Monarchs of Spain, Austria, Milan, and Venice, with the Papal States and Naples against the Turks and to impede the invasion of Naples by Charles VIII of France.

1495, June, 1.—Alexander VI asks the Kings to declare war on Charles VIII of France who had invaded the Kingdom of Naples, vassal of the Holy See, and who had taken the fort of Ostia.  He asks again on 6 August and 20 October of 1495.  After trying all the ways of diplomacy, the Gran Capitan re-conquered militarily for the Pope the lands that had been occupied by Charles VIII.

1495, November, 5.—Engagement of Princess Juana with the Archduke of Austria Phillip the Fair.

1496, January, 18.—Royal Decree concerning the great fleet to carry Juana to Flanders and return with the Princess Margaret.

1496, August, 15.—Isabel, the mother of the Catholic Queen, dies in Arevalo.

1496, October, 20.—Marriage of Juana with Phillip the Fair (of Austria) in Lila.

1496, December, 19.—Alexander VI grants Isabel and Ferdinand the title of “Catholic Monarchs” in a Papal Bull called “Si Convenit”.

1497, April, 3.—Marriage of Prince Juan with Margaret of Austria in Burgos.

1497, September, 30.—Second marriage of Princess Isabel of Castile with King Manuel of Portugal.

1497, October, 3.—The Prince Heir Juan dies in Salamanca.

1497, November, 9.—Brief of Alexander VI suspending the faculties granted to the reformers.

1498, February, 22.—Instruction or testament of primogeniture of Christopher Columbus.

1498, March, 26.—In Toledo, Manuel and Isabel, Monarchs of Portugal, are sworn as Heirs to Castile after the death of Prince Juan.

1498, May.—In Zaragoza, they are sworn as Heirs to Aragon.

1498, August, 23.—Prince Miguel de la Paz is born in Zaragoza.  His mother, Queen Isabel of Portugal, firstborn of the Catholic Monarchs, dies while giving birth to Miguel de la Paz.

1498, September, 22.—Prince Miguel de la Paz is sworn heir by the Court of Aragon presided by the Monarchs in Zaragoza.

1499, January.—He is sworn as heir to Castile and Leon in the Court of Ocaña.

1499, November, 15.—Leanore, grand-daughter of the Catholic Monarchs is born to Juana and Philip.

1500, January, 3.—Royal Decree asking for the agreement of Fr. Hernando and Cisneros that no type of force be used for the conversion of the Moors.  There are various documents that express this clearly between the years of 1500 and 1501.

1500, January, 26 and February 18.—Assurance from the Monarchs to the Moors in the diverse regions of Granada that they will not allow anyone to be turned Christian by the use of force.

1500, February, 21.—Royal Provision to the Moorish Community of Aranda de Duero decreeing that their members are not obliged to attend the sermons in the churches of the village. 

1500, February, 21.—Letter from the Queen to the Pope on behalf of the foundation that Professor Rodrigo de Santaella wants to found in Seville.

1500, July, 20.—Death of the infant Prince Miguel de la Paz, heir to all the kingdoms of the peninsula and their respective empires.

1500, September, 23.—Letter from the Queen to the Bishop of Avila concerning the reform of the Trinitarians.

1500, September-October.—Marriage of Manuel of Portugal with Princess María, daughter of the Catholic Monarchs. 

1500, October, 2 and 24.—An armada sent by the Monarchs makes the Turks withdraw from Corfu and Cefalonia, thus warding off their threatened invasion of Italy.

1500, October, 5.—The Queen writes to the Bishops requesting that they send priests to the Kingdom of Granada.  She writes to several individually.

1500, October, 24.—The Queen again asks the Bishops for priests for the Kingdom of Granada.

1500, December, 2.—List of fabrics and clothing, etc., that numerous noble Muslims received when they came to the City of Granada to convert.

1501, May, 8.—The Queen writes to the Magistrate of Cordoba that no bribe should be given to the Moors for their conversion.

1501, July, 20.—Prohibits the Moors of Castile from entering the Kingdom of Granada, to protect the faith of the new Christians.

1501, July, 15.—Birth of Isabel, grand-daughter of the Monarchs and later Queen of Denmark to Juana and Philip.

1501, August, 17.—Letter from the Queen to the Bishops of Castile exhorting them to the proper care of the Blessed Sacrament.

1501, September, 3.—Provision of the Queen naming Fr. Nicholas of Ovando as Governor of the Indies.

1501, September, 29.—Agreement signed with the Moors of the Kingdom of Murcia who had recently converted.

1501, October.—Marriage of the Monarchs’ daughter Catherine with Arthur of England, and in 1503 with Henry VIII, who later repudiated her.

1501, October, 12.—Royal letter to the effect that copies of the Koran and other Muslim books be burned but only those in the possession of Moors who have converted to Christianity.

1502, January, 2.—Letter from the Queen to the General of the Franciscans concerning the edification of the Monastery of the Immaculate Conception in Granada.

1502, February, 12.—Expulsion from Castile and Granada of the Moors who had not converted to Christianity.

1502, May, 9.—Columbus sets sail for the Indies from the Port of Sanlucar de Barrameda on his fourth and final voyage.

1502, May and October.—Princess Juana and Phillip the Fair are sworn in Toledo and Zaragoza as heirs to Castile and Aragon. 

1503, January, 12.—Royal grants given to the new Christians to compensate them for their conversion especially if in some way they had suffered economically for doing so.

1503, March, 10.—Prince Fernando is born in Alcala de Henares, future Holy Roman Emperor.

1503, May, 30.—Letter from the Queen to the Pope asking him to silence those who “have been talking against the Immaculate Conception”.  The Queen also helped St. Beatriz de Silva to found a new Order in honor of the Immaculate Conception (Las Concepcionistas Franciscanas) in 1484, centuries before the declaration of the dogma.

1503, October, 19.—The French Army of Luis XII had penetrated into Rosellón and taken the Fort of Salses.  The Queen’s prayers were answered when the French retreated without the spilling of Christian blood, and before the attack prepared by Ferdinand the Catholic.

1503, December, 20.—Letter from the Queen to the Governor of the Indies, concerning freedom: he should encourage and reward the Indians for dealing with and conversing with Christians; they should not be vagabonds, they should work and be paid a daily wage, as the free persons they are, and not like slaves, and no one should harm them in any way or make them suffer any misfortune; and on feast days they should get together to be taught the Faith, etc.

1504, February, 27.—Letter from the Queen to the Provincial of Aquitania and another to the Vicar General of the Franciscan Order assuring them both that she would take much care for the Observance to continue.

1504, March, 1.—The Queen accompanies her daughter Juana to Laredo, and sees her for the last time as she (Juana) embarks for Flanders.

1504, July, 19.—Both Monarchs become sick.

1504, October, 12 and November, 23.—Isabel writes her last will and codicil respectively.

1504, November, 26.—At midday on an autumn Wednesday:  “From the port of Medina / leaving an immortal trail / she followed Holy Mary / to be second in the heavens / but the first in Castile” (Joseph Fuentes Ruiz).

1504, November, 27.—Accompanied by many, her royal cadaver is carried to Granada for burial.

1504, December, 18.—The mortal remains of the Catholic Queen arrive in Granada and are buried according to her will in the Convent of San Francis of the Alhambra of Granada; her present resting place is in the Royal Chapel of Granada alongside her spouse.

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